Although a wide variety of viral agents are capable of causing lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults, influenza A & B; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3; and adenovirus are the most common. Of these, influenza A & B and RSV are the most important causes of medically attended acute respiratory illness. In addition to sharing a similar seasonal prevalence, it is important to remain cognizant that influenza A & B and RSV share overlapping clinical features and infection potential for certain high-risk patient groups (e.g., extremes of age, underlying cardiopulmonary disease and immunosuppressed).